American Indian Wars; Fort Mims massacre and Battle of Horseshoe Bend

"No conclusive evidence exists to determine how many native people lived in North America before the arrival of Columbus...

The Fort Mims massacre ...about 35 miles north of present-day Mobile, Alabama... was a battle that occurred on 30 August 1813 during the Creek War, when a force of Creek Indians, ...stormed the fort and defeated the militia garrison. After the defeat of the garrison there ensued a massacre and almost all of the remaining Lower Creek, white settlers, and militia at Fort Mims were killed.

...Creeks who did not support the war became targets for the prophets and their followers, and began to be murdered in their sleep or burned alive. Warriors ...also began to attack the property of their enemies, burning plantations and destroying livestock.

...On August 29, 1813, two black slaves tending cattle outside the stockade reported that "painted warriors" were in the vicinity. But, mounted scouts from the fort found no signs of the war party. To the detriment of Fort Mims, [the commander] had the second slave flogged for "raising a false alarm".

...perhaps 500 militia, settlers, slaves and Creeks loyal to the Americans died or were captured, with the Red Sticks taking some 250 scalps.

...When a relief column arrived a few weeks later, it found 247 corpses of the defenders and 100 of the Creek attackers.

...As Federal forces were devoted to the War of 1812, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama organized militias that were commanded by [later US President] Colonel Andrew Jackson, together with Lower Creek and Cherokee allies, to go against the Red Sticks. Jackson and his forces won the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814.

...Jackson ordered a bayonet charge. The 39th U.S. Infantry, led by Colonel John Williams, charged the breastworks defending the camp and caught the Red Sticks in hand-to-hand combat.

...the battle lasted for more than five hours. At the end, roughly 800 of the 1000 Red Stick warriors present at the battle were killed.



Andrew Jackson's force killed the women and children as well.

Enemy noses were cut off to count the dead.

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